Pilot Studies: Outcome of any pilot
studies which led to modifications to the main study.
Materials: Equipment, instruments or
measurement tools (include model number and manufacturer).
description, in chronological order, of exactly what was done and by whom.
reduction/statistical analyses- Must collect IOA.
of calculating derived variables, dealing with outlying values and missing
used to summarize data (present verb tense).
software (name, version or release number);
tests (cite a reference for less commonly used tests) and what was compared;
alpha probability (p) value at which differences/relationships were considered
to be statistically significant.
functions of this section are to report the results (past verb tense) of the
procedures described in the methods and to present the evidence that is the
data (in the form of text, tables or figures), that supports the results.Some journals combine the results and
discussion into one section.
sitting down to write the first draft, it is important to plan which results
are important in answering the question and which can be left out.Include only results which are relevant to
the question(s) posed in the introduction irrespective of whether or not the
results support the hypothesis(es).After deciding which results to present, attention should turn to
determining whether data are best presented within the text or as tables or
figures. Tables and figures (photographs, drawings, graphs, flow diagrams) are
often used to present details whereas the narrative section of the results
tends to be used to present the general findings.Clear tables and figures provide a very
powerful visual means of presenting data and should be used to complement the
text, but at the same time must be able to be understood in isolation.Except on rare occasions when emphasis is
required data that are given in a table or figure must not be repeated within
the text.Sources of help for the
preparation of table and figure are Briscoe (1990), Price (in press) and Zeiger
The discussion should be considered as
the heart of the paper and invariably requires several attempts at writing
(Portney and Watkins, 1993).It serves
to answer the question(s) posed in the introduction, explain how the results
support the answers and how the answers fit in with existing knowledge on the
topic (Zeiger, 1991).This is the main
section in which the author can express his/her interpretations and opinions,
for example how important the author thinks the results are, the author’s
suggestions for future research and the clinical implications of the findings
(Portney and Watkins, 1993).In order to
make the message clear, the discussion should be kept as short as possible
whilst still clearly and fully stating, supporting, explaining and defending
the answers to the questions as well as discussing other important and directly
relevant issues.Side issues and
unnecessary issues should not be included, as these tend to obscure the
message.Care must be taken to provide a
commentary and not a reiteration of the results. The recommended content of the
discussion is given in Table 4. (Zeiger, 1991)
Answers to the question(s) posed in the
introduction together with any accompanying support, explanation and defence of
the answers (present verb tense) with reference to published literature.
Explanations of any results that do not
support the answers.
Indication of the
originality/uniqueness of the work
How the findings concur with those of
Any discrepancies of the results with
those of others
The limitations of the study which may
affect the study validity or generalizability of the study findings.
Indication of the importance of the
work e.g. clinical significance